Member of the Academy G. Kharatishvili


General Solutions for Regular Linear n-Dimensional Differential Equations with Variable Coefficients

Presented March 2, 2006


Abstract. This article contains the formulae of general solutions for particular classes of nonhomogeneous ordinary linear differential equations with variable coefficients. © 2006 Bull. Georg. Natl. Acad. Sci.

Key words: differential equations, variable coefficients, general solutions.

pp. 215-218.





L. Zhizhiashvili


On some Approximate Properties of Fejer-Type Kernel Integral Operators

Presented November 24, 2005


Abstract. In the paper some approximate properties of Fejer-type operators for the real function of the class , , are asserted. © 2006 Bull. Georg. Natl. Acad. Sci.

Key words: Fejer-type kernel, Fejer-type operator.

 pp. 219-220.






Corr. Member of the Academy E. Nadaraya


Limit Distribution of a Quadratic Deviation of a Nonparametric Estimate of the Bernoulli Regression

Presented February 28, 2006


ABSTRACT. The limit distribution of an integral quadratic variance of a nonparametric estimate of Bernoulli regression kernel type is established. © 2006 Bull. Georg. Natl. Acad. Sci

Key words: limit distribution, consistency, power of criterion, Bernoulli regression.

pp. 221-224.















G. Khimshiashvili, D. Siersma


Stable Holomorphic Curves in Loop Spaces

Presented by Member of the Academy N. Berikashvili, April 17, 2006


ABSTRACT. We present a geometric characterization of stable holomorphic curves in immersed loop spaces of three-dimensional orientable Riemannian manifolds. Existence theorems for holomorphic discs passing through a given loop are also established. © 2006 Bull. Georg. Natl. Acad. Sci.

Key words: almost complex structure, holomorphic mapping, Brylinski loop space, holomorphic disc, stable mapping, foliated solid torus, linking number, Seifert fibration.

pp. 225-228.



A. Shangua, V. Tarieladze


Two Permutational Versions of the Banach-Saks Property

Presented by Member of  the Academy  N. Vakhania, December 22, 2005


Abstract. The permutational and the weak permutational Banach-Saks properties are introduced and their relationship with the usual Banach-Saks and Weak Banach-Saks properties is clarified. © 2006 Bull. Georg. Natl. Acad. Sci.

Key words:  Banach space, Banach Saks property, permutational Banach-Saks property.

pp. 229-232.





Ya. Diasamidze, Sh. Makharadze, N. Rokva


Structure of some Types of Regular Elements and Idempotents of Semigroups BX(D)

Presented by Corr. Member of the Academy H. Inassaridze, December 13, 2005


Abstract. In arbitrary complete X-semilattice of unions D final subsemilattices, that are nets are singled out. In the work for arbitrary final net Q all automorphisms are found. For binary relations a of the set B(Q)={a Î BX(D)|V(D,a)=Q} all the conditions are found, when they are idempotent or regular elements of semigroup BX(D). When X is final set, formulae for calculation of number regular elements are found. © 2006 Bull. Georg. Natl. Acad. Sci

Key words: idempotent elements, semigroups, semilattices.

pp. 233-235.















T. Tevzadze


On an Estimate of the Norm of a Function of Lipschitz
-Type Class

Presented by Member of the Academy L. Zhizhiashvili, October 11, 2005


ABSTRACT. Theorems generalizing corresponding results of M. and Sh. Izumi for the classes Lm(j,p,r), p>1, r³1, j(t) being a positive and non-decreasing function defined on the interval (0,1) of Lipschitz type functions, are given. © 2006 Bull. Georg. Natl. Acad. Sci.

Key words: Lipschitz type classes of functions of several variables.

pp. 236-238





M. Jibladze, T. Pirashvili


Quadratic Maps and Nilpotent Groups of Class Two

Presented by Member of the Academy G. Kharatishvili, April 11, 2006


ABSTRACT. A class of quadratic maps between class two nilpotent groups is singled out. This class strictly contains all homomorphisms and is closed under composition. Moreover it is closed under valuewise addition of maps with the same domain and range. Classification of class two nilpotent groups with respect to bijective maps from this class is addressed. © 2006 Bull. Georg. Natl. Acad. Sci.

Keywords: Class two nilpotent group, quadratic map.

pp. 239-242.




Z. Tevdoradze


Harmonic Forms on the Poisson Manifolds of Constant Rank

Presented by Member of the Academy N. Berikashvili, November 21, 2005


ABSTRACT. In this paper we consider one special case of Poisson manifolds of constant rank, the symlectic foliation of which consists of Kähler manifolds. In this case connection between the classical codifferential operator in geometry and the analogical operator in Poisson geometry is established. © 2006 Bull. Georg. Natl. Acad. Sci.

Key words: Poisson manifold, foliation, Levi-Civita connection, holonomy group, harmonic form, cohomology classes.

pp. 243-244.












M. Shubladze


Milnor Number of Nonisolated Hypersurface Singularities of Transversal Type Ak-1

Presented by Corr.Member of the Academy N.Berikashvili, May 7, 2005



ABSTRACT. The explicit  formula for the Milnor number of nonisolated hypersurface singularities of type Ak-1 is proved. © 2006 Bull. Georg. Natl. Acad. Sci.

Key words: hypersurface singularity, complete intersection, versal deformation.

pp. 245-249





P. Babilua, I. Bokuchava, B. Dochviri, M. Shashiashvili


Optimal Stopping Problem on a Finite Time Interval

Presented by Corr. Member of the Academy E. Nadaraya, November 8, 2005


ABSTRACT. In this paper general questions of the theory of optimal stopping for a nonterminating homogeneous Markov process with the cost of the observation on a finite time interval [0,T] are investigated. In this case the payoff of continuing the observations depends on the time parameter T and the problem becomes in some sense nonhomogeneous. Supermartingale characterization of  payoff, form of optimal (e-optimal) stopping times are obtained and the convergence of payoffs and optimal stopping times as T®¥ are proved. © 2006 Bull. Georg. Natl. Acad. Sci.

Key words: standard Markov process, optimal stopping time, payoff, regular supermartingale.







Z. Todua


On some Properties of Presheaves of Modules on a Complete Distributive Lattice

Presented by Corr. Member of the Academy N. Berikashvili, November 29, 2005


Abstract. Theorem of uniqueness for cohomology of presheaves in a class of paracompact, complete distributive lattices is proved. © 2006 Bull. Georg. Natl. Acad. Sci.

Key words: lattice, presheaves, cohomology.

pp. 254-257.











D. Gordeziani, G. Avalishvili, M. Avalishvili


On the Investigation of the Generalized Schrödinger Type Equation in Abstract Spaces 

Presented by Corr. Member of the Academy E. Nadaraya, November 1, 2005


ABSTRACT. The present paper is devoted to the investigation of Schrödinger type equation with several time variables. In abstract spaces initial value problem for the generalized Schrödinger equation is formulated; existence and uniqueness of its solution are studied and stability theorem with respect to the constitutive operator is proved. © 2006 Bull. Georg. Natl. Acad. Sci

Key words: Schrödinger type equations, abstract initial value problems.

pp. 258-261.






I. Kakubava, N. Svanidze


Priority Closed Queuing System with Consideration of Extra-System Delays of Service Facility

Presented by Corr. Member of the Academy A. Prangishvili, December 13, 2005


ABSTRACT. Here is investigated a head-of-the line (relative) priority discipline standby system with renewal and replacement services. The durations of both services are the random values with arbitrary distributions. Analytical model is constructed in the form of closed queuing system where service facility may be in passive and active states. © 2006 Bull. Georg. Natl. Acad. Sci.

Key words: renewal, replacement, standby system, passive state.

pp. 262-265.





I. Khutsishvili


An Application of  the Statistical Method of Fuzzy Grades’ Analysis

Presented by Member of the Academy V.Chavchanidze, September 27, 2005


ABSTRACT. The presented article shows an application of the statistical method of analysis of fuzzy classes for forecasting of earthquakes. The forecast is based on the single factor-precursor. © 2006 Bull. Georg. Natl. Acad. Sci.

Key words: Fuzzy grades, fuzzy relative frequencies, forecasting factors, earthquake.

pp. 266-268.








Corr. Member of the Academy G. Japaridze, E. Pogosyan


Ground-State Phase Diagram of the Half-Filled Alternating Hubbard Model

Presented April 25, 2006


Abstract. We investigate the mean-field ground-state phase diagram of the one-dimensional repulsive Hubbard model with alternating on-site interaction at half-filling. We identify insulator-insulator quantum phase transition with increasing average on-site repulsion from a charge ordered band insulator (BI) to a correlated insulator (CI) characterized by the coexisting alternating charge and spin order (CO+AFM). We have shown existence of a tricritical point () in the phase diagram. We have shown that for  the BICI transition is of the first order. For  this transition is split into two transitions. First, at  the second order transition from a CO phase into the intermediate phase and then, at , the first order transition from the intermediate phase into the CI phase. The transition line into the CI phase corresponds to an unconventional metallic phase. © 2006 Bull. Georg. Natl. Acad. Sci.

Key words: Hubbard model, quantum phase transition, phase diagram.

pp. 269-273.




V. Kortkhonjia


On the Influence of Discharge Tube Material on the Processes Taking Place at Explosion of Wire in Water

Presented by Member of the Academy G. Kharadze, March 21, 2006.


ABSTRACT. It has been shown that at explosion of wire in water, the grounding of discharge tube significantly affects the discharge energy characteristics. One should especially note the influence of discharge tube material. For example, in the case of steel tube the energy released in discharge is about twice as large as in the case of tube made of stainless steel. © 2006 Bull. Georg. Natl. Acad. Sci.

Key words:  wire explosion in water, electromotive force, ferromagnetizm.

pp. 274-276.



N. Metreveli, B. Bochorishvili, Z. Kachlishvili


Hall Constant at Transverse Runaway of Hot Electrons

Presented by Member of the Academy A. Khelashvili,  March 20, 2006


Abstract. In this paper Hall constant at transverse runaway (TR) of hot electrons at the given current regime is determined in quasi-elastic scattering approximation. An interesting pattern characterizing Hall constant variations in TR regime is found. For weak magnetic fields Hall constant has a distinct maximum at electric fields corresponding to TR threshold values. Intensity of the maximum decreases at increase of the magnetic field until it totally disappears.  © 2006 Bull. Georg. Natl. Acad. Sci.

Key words: hall constant, hot electrons, quasi-elastic scattering.

pp. 277-280.



O. Kharshiladze


Dynamical Chaos and Order-Disorder Transition in the Large-Scale Ionospheric Motions

Presented by Member of the Academy J. Lominadze, January 13, 2005


ABSTRACT. In the given work the large-scale ionospheric flows, caused by spatial inhomogeneous geomagnetic field, are studied. The closed system of nonlinear Lorentz-type equations is obtained. On the basis of numerical calculations of these equations transition to chaos and formation of order-disorder is observed. Characteristics of the strange attractors are defined.  © 2006 Bull. Georg. Natl. Acad. Sci.

Key words: planetary electromagnetic wave, determined chaos, magnetic convection.

pp. 281-284.




A. Chkhetia, D. Gogochuri


Secular Variation of the Geomagnetic Elements' Declination and Inclination in London-Abinger-Hartland

Presented by Corr.Member of the Academy T.Chelidze, October 3, 2005


ABSTRACT. On the basis of analysis of time series of geomagnetic field elements’ declination (D0) and inclination (I0) in London-Abinger-Hartland in 1576-1999 years, it was revealed that D0 and I0 components experience harmonic oscillations. Time distribution of magnetic components' declination and inclination was approximated by the formulas. The period of a fundamental wave of secular motion of the Earth’s magnetic field for declination TD=720 years and for inclination TI=520 years. In the coordinate system of D0 and I0, it was revealed that the complete vector of the Earth’s magnetic field density during period 1580-2100 describes an quazi ellipsoid in space. The prognosis of full period of the cycle equals T=520 year. © 2006 Bull. Georg. Natl. Acad. Sci

Key words: secular variation, the period of a fundamental wave, geomagnetic field, elements-declination and inclination.

pp. 285-287.



Sh. Nikolaishvili, Z. Rostomashvili


Estimatation of the Light Spot Sizes on the Boundaries of a Stratified Cloud Illuminated by Normally Falling Laser Beam

Presented by Member of the Academy J. Lominadze, October, 25, 2005


Abstract. A method of determination of radiative characteristics of a stratified cloud illuminated by a normally falling laser beam is developed. A finite-difference scheme for solving the equations, which define the sought moments and radiative characteristics corresponding to radial distributions of albedo, nadir radiance, and transmittance is elaborated. In case of optically thin clouds approximate formulae for the considered radiative characteristics are obtained. Calculations of these characteristics in cases of isotropic and strongly anisotropic scattering of photons are carried out and their results are represented. © 2006 Bull. Georg. Natl. Acad. Sci.

Keywords: radiation transfer, albedo, nadir radiance, transmittance.

pp. 288-291.



M. Alania, A. Gil, R. Modzelewska


The 27-day Variations of the Galactic Cosmic Rays Anisotropy and Intensity

Presented by Member of the Academy T. Chelidze, December 20, 2005


Abstract. The 27-day variations of the galactic cosmic rays (GCR) intensity and anisotropy have been studied in different ( qA>0 and qA<0) periods of solar magnetic cycle based on theoretical modeling of the cosmic ray transport in the interplanetary space. The amplitudes of the 27-day variation of the GCR intensity and anisotropy are larger for qA>0 period than for qA<0 period of solar magnetic cycle in the minima and near minima epochs of solar activity. © 2006 Bull. Georg. Natl. Acad. Sci.

Key words: Solar wind, solar magnetic cycle, galactic cosmic rays.

pp. 292-294.




Member of the Academy Ts.  Mirtskhoulava, A. Kordzadze,
A. Surmava, D. Demetrashvili 


Numerical  Modeling of a  Soil  Pollution by Oil from an Open Rectangular Pit

Presented October 11, 2005


ABSTRACT. Oil distribution in soil is simulated with the help of numerical integration of nonlinear 3-D filtration equation of liquid. Calculations show that the numerical model qualitatively correctly describes the oil infiltration process in soil. © 2006 Bull. Georg. Natl. Acad. Sci.

Key words: numerical modeling, oil infiltration process, pollution of a soil.

pp. 295-297.





E. Kvaratskhelia, R. Kvaratskhelia


The Equations for Calculation of the Degrees of Dissociation of Weak Dibasic Organic Acids

Presented by Member of the Academy J. Japaridze, November 1, 2005


ABSTRACT. The equations for exact and approximate calculation of the degrees of dissociation of weak dibasic organic acids are suggested. The concept of the partial degree of dissociation of a given step which more exactly describes nature of dissociation at this step is also suggested. © 2006 Bull. Georg. Natl. Acad. Sci.

Key words: degree of dissociation, dissociation step, hydrogen ion concentration, acid, dissociation constant.

pp. 298-300.







Sh. Japaridze, I. Gurgenidze, Member of the Academy J. Japaridze, M. Chankashvili 


Regularities of Adsorption of Anthraquinone-9,10 and
2-Chloroanthraquinone-9,10 from Non-Aqueous (Protone) Solvents

Presented November 1, 2005


ABSTRACT. Using the measurements of the curves of differential capacity as a function of an electrode potential, we studied the adsorption power of anthraquinone-9,10 and 2-chloroanthraquinone-9,10 on mercury from ethylene glycol solutions. It is shown that in the case of anode polarizations, adsorption occurs mainly due to the p-electron interaction of aromatic rings with the electrode surface. It is established that, unlike chloranthraquinone, anthraquinone is able to form a polymolecular adsorption layer. It is conjectured that chlorine atoms create stereo and dipole difficulties for the formation of such a layer.  © 2006 Bull. Georg. Natl. Acad. Sci.

Key words: adsorption, anthraquinone, ethylene glycol, differential capacitance, polymolecular adsorption layer.

pp. 301-303.



Physical Geography


Corr.  Member  of the  Academy  Z. Tatashidze, E. Tsereteli, M. Gaprindashvili,
N. Tsereteli, D. Taliashvili


Dgvari Land-Slide (Borjomi Region) and the Risk of its Implication on Baku-Tbilisi-Cayhan Pipeline Functioning

Presented November 9, 2006


Abstract. Dgvari landslide  covers over 1000 ha territory. The process began to substantially increase  in activity at the end of the 20th century. It is the result of the Spitak (1988) and Ratcha-Imereti earthquakes with force 8-9. The land-slide territory unites deformation zones of quite different generation, age, mechanism, kinematics and depth disposition. At present active land-sliding process is developed in its lower part which  completely destroyed the settlement. © 2006 Bull. Georg. Natl. Acad. Sci.

Key words: land-slide, heterogeneous deformation zone, tectoseismogravitational phenomena.

pp. 304-306.





P. Mindeli, G. Jashi, B. Ghambashidze, T. Gvantseladze, S. Ghonghadze


A model of the Earth’s Crust Structure in the Depression Zone of West Georgia

Presented by Member of the Academy B. Balavadze, November 1, 2005


ABSTRACT. The geological-geophysical sections as a model of approach is arranged on the basis of geological and geophysical data from the west side of Dzirula prominence of crystalline rocks to Anaclia (Black sea east shore). The Earths Crust according to the physical parameters (density, velocity) is subdivided into 8 layers. Solving the direct problem of geophysics, the more accurate model of first approximation is composed. There were computed gravitational effects of all layers and that of the whole model. The gravitational effects of all separate layers in formation of the observed physical field were estimated. © 2006 Bull. Georg. Natl. Acad. Sci.

Key words: section, direct problem, depression gravity field, refraction wave, geotraverse.

pp. 307-309.




T. Elizbarashvili, V. Lortkipanidze, D. Pirtskhalava, D. Lomidze, B. Lobzhanidze,
G. Gabrichidze, M. Elizbarashvili


On Investigation of Real Regimes of Explosive Material Cumulating Charge Detonation

Presented by Corr. Member of the Academy L. Japaridze August 25, 2005


ABSTRACT. The results of investigations of the characteristics of detonation wave formation are given for different constructions, of explosive material cumulating charges including those worked out by the authors. The methods of determination of the real speed of this wave propagation in the charge are considered. © 2006 Bull. Georg. Natl. Acad. Sci.

Key words: cumulating wave, real detonation wave, detonation speed.

pp. 310-312.




I. Chkhartishvili, Z. Melashvili, J. Lordkipanidze, I. Shengelaia


Optimization of the Process of the Pipe Expansion

Presented by Member of the Academy R.Adamia, November 29, 2005


ABSTRACT. Multiroll expander design is developed for manufacture of thin-wall seamless pipes of the big diameter with high degree accuracy of geometry due to the kinematic scheme of the raised rigidity. Such a state is the result of axial deviation of the rolls relative to the direction of seats of corresponding roller of combined mandrels in 3-20° limits. © 2006 Bull. Georg. Natl. Acad. Sci.

Key words: expander tube, roll, mandrel, roller.

pp. 313-315.




V. Zviadauri, G. Gogia, D. Chachua, M. Tsereteli, M. Chelidze, S. Iashvili


On the Dynamic Model of the Ropeway

Presented by Member of the Academy R. Adamia, October, 25, 2005


ABSTRACT. The dynamic model of ropeway rope-carriage-car with the account of dynamic bending of the rope is considered. Movement is considered in the longitudinal vertical plane concerning the rope. Interconnected system of the differential equations of movement corresponding to the model  is received. © 2006 Bull. Georg. Natl. Acad. Sci.

Key words: ropeway, dynamic model, rope, carriage.

pp. 316-318.


Plant Growing


G. Meladze, M. Meladze


Perspectives of Ecologically Pure Yield of some Agricultural Products in Samtskhe-Javakheti Region of Georgia

Presented by Member of the Academy G.Kvesitadze, January 10, 2006


ABSTRACT. On the basis of experiments in high-mountain zone (2.200 m a.s.l.) of South Georgia.  at specific conditions. The authors revealed definite conditions at which it is possible to get ecological pure heavy yield of agricultural plants (barley, garden beet, trigonella). Concrete data of these experiments such as a dose of the organic fertilizer per hectare, values of hydrothermal coefficient and temperature of the soil are given. A close relation among these factors and the yield is established. © 2006 Bull. Georg. Natl. Acad. Sci.

Key words: ecologically pure, agricultural plants, organic fertilizer, hydrothermal coefficient (HTC), soil temperature.

pp. 319-321.




L. Dolidze


Natural Regeneration of Forest in Beech Stand after Cutting

Presented by Corr. Member of the Academy T.Urushadze, January 31, 2006


ABSTRACT. Natural regeneration of forest in beech stands after cutting in Kakheti region of Eastern Georgia is considered in accordance with forest types. It is shown that regeneration occurs perfectly in beech forests with fescue and woodrowel coverings. In beech forests with blackberry the regeneration is bad. © 2006 Bull. Georg. Natl. Acad. Sci.

Key words: natural regeneration, involuntary selective cut, group selective cut, sapling.

pp. 322-325.




Ts. Mikatadze-Pantsulaia, Z. Gamtsemlidze, M. Khutsishvili


Reproduction Biology and ex–situ Conservation of Cyclamen vernum Sweet

Presented by Corr. Member of the Academy G. Nakhutsrishvili, December 20, 2005


ABSTRACT. Investigation of pecularities of sexual reproduction of Cyclamen vernum has shown, that generative organs function normally, i. e. are fertile; pollination/fertilization  processes proceed normally, which is indicated by high output of seeds and their  ability for successful germination and sprouting; development ability of seedlings is  good. The species is well adapted to conditions of its habitat. © 2006 Bull. Georg. Natl. Acad. Sci.

Key words: Cyclamen vernum, embryology, germination, seed reproduction.

pp. 326-329.







I. Mikeladze

Dynamics of Seasonal Development of Roses in Batumi Botanical Garden

Presented by Member of the Academy V. Papunidze, March 1, 2005


ABSTRACT. Results of phenological observations on different rose cultivars grown in Batumi Botanical Garden are presented. Duration and repeatability of rose flowering are discussed and biomorphological state of rose plants in conditions of Black Sea coast of Ajara are investigated. © 2006 Bull. Georg. Natl. Acad. Sci..

Key words: phenology, vegetation, budding, flowering, polycyclicity.

pp. 330-332.





M. Churgulia-Shurgaia, M. Gvritishvili


Contribution to the Mycobiotic Diversity of Georgia: Fungi Associated with Persimmon’s Species ( Diospyros spp.)

Presented by Corr. Member of the Academy G. Nakhutsrishvili, January 11, 2006


Abstract. 98 species (Ascomycota - 24; Basidiomycota - 3; Deuteromycota - 71 species) of fungi recorded on Diospyros spp. (D. kaki, D. lotus, D. virginiana) in Georgia are given. The genus Ceratosporium Schwein. is recorded for the first time in Georgia. © 2006 Bull. Georg. Natl. Acad. Sci.

Key words: fungi, Diospyros spp., Georgia.

pp. 333-336.





M. Koridze, A. Diasamidze, N. Beridze


Biomutagenic Peculiarities of Kovano Vace Mandarin

Presented by Corr. Member of the Academy V. Papunidze, December 28, 2005


ABSTRACT. Cytogenetic effect of the extract obtained from the leaves of Kovano Vace mandarin has been studied in order to establish the possible automutagenic mechanism of origin of intravarietal somatic mutations. The experiments have shown that some biological products contained in Kovano Vace leaves have mutagenic effect, which causes the increase of level of manifestation of spontaneous mutations while acting on genetic apparatus. © 2006 Bull. Georg. Natl. Acad. Sci.

Key words: somatic mutation, automutagenic mechanism, spontaneous mutation.

pp. 337-339.





D. Baratashvili, I. Berulava, N. Alasania


Cytogenetic Peculiarities of Mutation Variability of Tea Plant in the Industrial Plantations of Ajara-Guria Region

Presented by Corr. Member of the Academy V. Papunidze, December 7, 2006


ABSTRACT. Cytogenetic peculiarities of tea plants have been studied on the example of industrial plantations of Ajara-Guria region (West Georgia) in five ecological zones. According to the dynamics of the ten-year cycle the maximum frequency (4.1-5.1%) of mutations of tea plant chromosomes was observed in 1990 and the lowest (1.1-1.9%) in 1980. In the year of 2000 the tendency to the decrease of the frequency of mutations has been marked. The possible reasons of this fact are discussed. The difference between certain ecological zones by the given criterion was not statistically reliable. © 2006 Bull. Georg. Natl. Acad. Sci.

Key words: mutation, chromosome aberration, radionuclides.

pp. 340-342.



M. Nagervadze, A. Diasamidze, G. Dumbadze, L. Akhvlediani, N. Turmanidze


Frequency of Occurrence of Rh-Hr Genetic Markers in the Population of Keda Region of Ajara, Georgia

Presented by Member of the Academy T. Beridze, February 28, 2006


ABSTRACT. Investigation of Rh-Hr system has revealed high (99, 87, 78%) incidence of e, c and D antigenes in the population of Keda Region while the frequency of occurrence of C and E antigenes is much lower (51, 20%). The 79% of the population are the carriers of ee genotype, 45 % - of cc genotype; 44% - of Cc genotype; 9% - of CC genotype; 19% of Ee genotype and 1% of EE genotype. The 78% of the population is Rh (+) and 22% is Rh (-). The 11  RH phenotypie groups have been revealed with the following frequencies: CcDee - 33%; ccddee - 22%; ccDee - 13%; ccDEe - 10%; CCDee - 9%; CcDEe - 8%. The groups Ccddee, ccDEe, ccDEE, --Dee, --D-- were presented by the frequency less than 1%. © 2006 Bull. Georg. Natl. Acad. Sci.

Key words: Rh-system, Rh-Hr antigenes, allosensibilization, population polymorphism.

pp. 343-344.




N. Saghinadze, E. Kirtadze, V. Aplakov, R. Aplakov


Proline Biosynthesis during Natural Alcoholic Fermentation

Presented by Member of the Academy G. Kvesitadze, January 16, 2006


ABSTRACT. The possible role of essential organic acids and amino acids of grape juice in the proline biosynthesis during natural alcoholic fermentation was revealed. Using labelled compounds it was found that the carbon atoms of pyruvic, a-ketoglutaric, glutaminic and aspartic acids are the principal participants in the formation of the proline carbon skeleton. The proline formed through the biotransformation of the compounds examined was identified in yeast and wine. © 2006 Bull. Georg. Natl. Acad. Sci.

Key words: proline, natural alcoholic fermentation, organic acids, amino acids.

pp. 345-347.




N. Kuprava, M. Betsiashvili, N. Dzamukashvili, T. Sadunishvili,
Member of the Academy N. Nutsubidze


Influence of Rhizobium and Free-Living Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria on Nitrogen Assimilation Enzymes of Soybean Plant

Presented February 28, 2006


ABSTRACT. The effect of inoculation with different combinations of strains of symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria Bradyrhizobium japonicum 2 and Bradyrhizobium japonicum 46 and free-living nitrogen-fixing bacteria Azospirillum brasilense G3 on nitrogen assimilation enzymes and protein content has been studied in soybean (Glycine max) variety “Adreula 6”.

It has been established that vegetative organs of soybean plants inoculated by the strains B. japonicum 2 and B. japonicum 46 were distinguished by the high content of protein and increased activities of nitrogen assimilation enzymes glutamate synthase and glutamate dehydrogenase. In some cases also soybean inoculation with combination of B. japonicum 2 with free-living bacterial strain A. brasilense G3 gives a certain positive effect. © 2006 Bull. Georg. Natl. Acad. Sci.

Key words: soybean, glutamate synthase, glutamate dehydrogenase, ammonia, Bradyrhizobium japonicum, Azospirillum brasilense.

pp. 348-351.





I. Japaridze, G. Papunidze, M. Vanidze, A. Kalandia


Cherry Laurel (Laurocerasus officinalis Roem.) as a Raw Material for Biologically Active Additive

Presented by Corr. Member of the Academy N. Nutsubidze, June 22, 2004


ABSTRACT. An optimum regime is specified for the extraction of biologically active substances - anthocyans from different sorts of cherry laurel (Laurocerasus officinalis Roem). Technological scheme is developed for obtaining the cherry laurel juice. Content of anthocyans in the obtained juice was determined chromatographically and its antioxidant activity was evaluated by the method of electropotentiometry. © 2006 Bull. Georg. Natl. Acad. Sci.

Key words: cherry laurel, fruit, juice, anthocyan, extract, antioxidant activity; biologically active additive.

pp. 352-355.



Microbiology and Virology


M. Elizbarashvili, M. Darsavelidze, Member of the Academy T. Chanishvili,
T. Suladze, M. Dvalishvili  


Characterization of Phages Active to Klebsiella pneumoniae

Presented April 21, 2005


Abstract.  There were isolated 16 new  K. pneumoniae phages. Activity range of the above-mentioned phages  varied from 20-70%. The phages (group VI) causing lysis of 70% of the strains, were characterized by wide range of action. In consequence of cloning 18 clones were obtained. Morphology of only 8 K. pneumoniae phages was studied. The phages were divided as follows: Myoviridae–6 phages; Syphoviridae–2 phages. © 2006 Bull. Georg. Natl. Acad. Sci.

Key words: bacteriophage, virion, clone.

pp. 356-358.



Microbiology and Virology


L. Daushvili, L. Kutateladze, T. Burduli, M. Jobava, T. Urushadze,
T. Aleksidze, M. Davitaia


Halophilic Micromycetes from Different Soil-Climatic
Zones of Georgia

Presented by Member of the Academy G. Kvesitadze, December 27, 2005


ABSTRACT.  For the purpose of revealing the halophilic micromycetes 101 cultures of microscopic fungi of 14 different genera, isolated from diverse soil-climatic zones of Georgia, have been investigated. 21 moderate and 5 extreme halophiles were revealed. It is established that the halophilic features are characteristic mainly for micromycetes, isolated from saline solonetz, alkali- soils. Most of the revealed halophiles belonged to the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium. © 2006 Bull. Georg. Natl. Acad. Sci..

Key words: microscopic fungi, halophiles, soil-climatic zones, Aspergillus, Penicillium.

pp. 359-361.



MICROBIOLOGY and virology


M. Samadashvili, Ts. Begishvili, L. Mazanashvili, I. Chkhetiani


Influence of Vitamins on Development and Lipids Biosynthesis of the Fungus Entomophthora virulenta

Presented by Corr. Member of the Academy D. Ugrekhelidze, November 9,2005


ABSTRACT. Effect of different vitamins on growth and synthesis of lipids and fatty acids content of Entomophthora virulenta has been studied. It was established that the level of lipids accumulation on the synthesized nutrient medium was significantly changing and depended on the added complex of vitamins. The quantitative changes of fatty acids were not well expressed. Addition of different vitamins or yeast extracts caused accumulation of arachidonic acid with no more than 10.96%. At the addition of riboflavin and cobalamine without yeast extract the decrease of their content was observed. © 2006 Bull. Georg. Natl. Acad. Sci.

Key words: vitamins, biomass, lipid synthesis, Entomophthora virulenta.

pp. 362-364.









M. Lortkipanidze


Predicting Foraging Strategy in Entomopathogenic Nematodes

Presented by Member of the Academy I.Eliava, September 15, 2005


ABSTRACT. Entomopathogenic nematodes gain access to the host through its openings (month, anus, covering). Foraging strategies of nematodes have been developed due to natural selection which clearly shows the behavioral patterns. According to different strategies applied during the search of nutrients, nematodes are categorized into two modes of foraging: cruisers and ambushers. We were interested in the following: what foraging strategy was characteristic to the chosen objects and whether the strategies were presented in the ‘pure’ form. Nematode response to changing cues of the host was determined on Petri dishes with two types of substrates: filter paper, sand and sand surface. © 2006 Bull. Georg. Natl. Acad. Sci.

Key words: entomopathogenic nematodes, nictate, foraging strategy.

pp. 365-367.




Corr. Member of the Academy I. Eliava, E. Tskitishvili, N. Bagathuria


Enchodelus georgiensis sp. nov. (Nematoda, Dorylaimida) from Eastern Georgia

Presented December 20, 2005


ABSTRACT. Soil nematodes of Gombory ridge and Algethi reserve (Eastern Georgia) have been studied. We found dorylaimid nematodes described as a new species Enchodelus georgiensis. © 2006 Bull. Georg. Natl. Acad. Sci.

Key words: odontostyle, odontophore, spicule, supplement.

pp. 368-370.




A. Gegechkori, T. Mkheidze, V. Pkhakadze


The Ecological and Zoogeographical-Chorological Peculiarieties of the Spiders (Families Dipluridae, Eresidae, Filistatidae, Amaurobiidae, Titanoecidae, Dictinidae, Uloboridae, Mimethidae, Sicariidae, Anyphaenidae, Sparassidae) Fauna of East Georgia

Presented by Corr. Member of the Academy I. Eliava, December 20, 2005

Abstract. It was established that allochtonous element of fauna (11 genera, 15 species) prevails over the autochtonous one (3 genera, 2 species, 2 subspecies). From allochtonous element of fauna with Holarctic distribution are characterized 2 genera, 2 species; with Palaearctic- 8 genera, 8 species; with European - 4 genera, 4 species; with Euro-Europe-Siberian -1 genus and 1 species. From autochtonous element of fauna 1 genus, 2 species and 2 subspecies are characterized with south Caucasian distribution. From ecological point of view the investigation has shown that 12 species and 1 subspecies- are mesophillous, 4 species, 1 subspecies -xerophillous and 1 species - hygrophillous. © 2006 Bull. Georg. Natl. Acad. Sci.

Key words: taxonomy, zoogeography, chorology, ecology, Dipluridae, Eresidae, Filistatidae, Amaurobiidae, Titanoecidae, Dictinidae, Uloboridae, Mimethidae, Sicariidae, Anyphaenidae, Sparassidae.

pp. 371-373.

Experimental Medicine


M. Janiashvili,  M. Gvantseladze, E. Nikuchadze, N. Ckhvediani, T. Matcharashvili


Long-Range Correlation Analysis of Arterial Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Variability

Presented by Member of the Academy T. Oniani, December 20, 2005


Abstract. In the present study we investigated dynamics of blood pressure and heart rate fluctuations. Detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) methodology was used for compiled systolic and diastolic pressure, as well as heart rate variability time series. Analyzed time series were compiled from 24 hour blood pressure and heart rate variability recordings.

It was shown, that dynamics of blood pressure and heart rate variation in all investigated groups are not realization of random process and have long range correlation features. At the same time under arterial hypertension fluctuations of blood pressure and heart rate variation lose their persistent character typical for healthy conditions. © 2006 Bull. Georg. Natl. Acad. Sci

Key words: cardiology, dynamics, arterial hypertension, long range correlations.

pp. 374-376.



Experimental Medicine


G. Sirbiladze, N. Kikodze, M. Iobadze, M. Jgenti, I. Pantsulaia,  T.  Chikovani


Activities of Caspases in Experimental Mild Hepatitis and their Regulation by Immunomodulators

Presented by Member of the Academy N. Javakhishvili, November 29, 2005


Abstract. Among series of apoptosis models, concanavalin A (Con-A) model stands outs with its capacity to induce specifically T-cell dependent liver injury that results both in necrotic and apoptotic processes. Recent research advances provide that the activated T-cells cause hepatocellular apoptosis by either inflammatory cytokine signalling or Fas ligand–mediated pathway underscoring a certain role of caspases in the injury. The main aim of the present study was to examine potential anti- or pro-apoptotic effects of anti-inflammatory drugs (Plaferon LB, dexametasone) in a Con-A-induced liver injury model. Experiments consisted in developing a Con-A-induced hepatitis in mice, analysis of serum ALT activity in serum and spectrophotometric study of the caspase-3 and caspase-8 activities in isolated hepatocytes. Our study revealed that PLB has pro-apoptotic effects by increasing the caspase-3 and caspase-8 activities in mild hepatitis, and may have therapeutic potential for treating various liver injuries such as hepatitis or tumors. © 2006 Bull. Georg. Natl. Acad. Sci.

Keywords: caspases, experimental mild hepatitis, immunomodoluatory drugs.

pp. 377-380.



Experimental  Medicine


B. Tsinamdzgvrishvili, N. Rigishvili


Rheological Parameters of Blood at Myocardial Infarction

Presented by Member of the Academy T. Dekanosidze, December 11, 2005


Abstract. Physical parameters of erythrocytes, such as fibrinogen, hematocryte, blood viscosity, adhesion have been investigated. Each of them plays certain role in structural changes of hemacytes at miocardial infarction. Received indicators vary from control observations, especially at its acute period. In preacute period of disease these indicators presinglificantly descrease, but do not reach control onces. Physical parameters of erythrocytes are connected with rheology which is very important taking into account the role of blood current for protective reactions of the organism. © 2006 Bull. Georg. Natl. Acad. Sci.

Key words: erythrocytes, thrombocytes, miocardial infarction.

pp. 381-382.


Experimental Medicine


A. Pertia, Corr. Member of the Academy L. Managadze

Long-Term Results of Treatment of Young Patients with Renal Cell Cacrcinoma

Presented April 18, 2006


Abstract. The aim of our study was to present our institutional experience with young adult patients treated for sporadic renal cell cancer (RCC) during  past decade. A retrospective study of medical charts of 535 patients with  RCC who were treated at our institution from 1990 to 2002 was performed. 39 patients ( 7.3% ) out of 535 were between the ages of 20 and 40 years. The mean postoperative follow-up was 52.8±31.2  months. The cancer-specific 5-year survival rate was 59 %.  Incidentally discovered tumors were less likely to develop metastases and had improved cancer-specific survival compared with symptomatic tumors (P = 0.046). The 5-year cancer-specific survival rate by pathologic stage was 81% for T1N0M0,  57% for T2N0M0, 29% for T3N0M0, and 0% for N+  (P<0.001).       © 2006 Bull. Georg. Natl. Acad. Sci.

Key words: kidney cancer, surgery, long-term results.

pp. 383-385.





T. Kishmareia, Z. Paghava, G. Mamaladze, M. Loria, I. Maisuradze,
R. Abashidze, I. Mdivani


Blood Pressure and QT Interval Dispersion During Exercise in Subjects with Athletic and  Pathological Left Ventricular Hypertrophy

Presented by Corr. Member of the Academy N. Kipshidze, October 3, 2005


ABSTRACT. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is a strong predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality including sudden death (SD). On the other hand, SD is extremely rare in athletes with LVH.  Prolongation of QT interval in the ECG and its variation (QTd) is considered as indicator of arrhythmogenicity. © 2006 Bull. Georg. Natl. Acad. Sci.

Key words: left ventricular hypertrophy, arterial hypertension, QT dispersion, physical exercise.

pp. 386-388.









Experimental Medicine


I. Gvineria, V. Saakadze, Kh. Shishniashvili


On  Embryotoxic Action of Copper Oxychloride

Presented by Corr.Member of the Academy T. Dekanosidze, October 25, 2005


Abstract. Copper containing pesticides copper oxychloride, widely used in the agriculture of Georgia has been studied. An intensive application of pesticides creates real danger of environment pollution and its prolong action affects human health. This causes the development of various negative effects including the disorder of respiration function. The experiment has been carried out on white rats. Copper oxychloride with the dose of 1/5 DL50 was injected perorally from 1 to 20 days of pregnancy. It has been established that copper oxychloride makes negative effect on embryogenetic process which is expressed in total embryonic, pre and postembryonic high mortality index. The reduction of normally developed embryos marks the damage of embryo with various pathologies. © 2006 Bull. Georg. Natl. Acad. Sci.

Key words: pesticide, copper, oxychloride, human health, embryo.

pp. 389-392.


Experimental Medicine


M. Sadunishvili, I. Megreladze, Z. Paghava, L. Japaridze


Effectiveness of Combined Usage of Perindoprile and Nebivalole on Hemodynamic Parameters, Systolic-Diastolic Function of Left Ventricle and Life Quality in Patients with Arterial Hypertension

Presented by Member of the Academy N. Kipshidze, October 18, 2005


ABSTRACT. Previously principles of the treatment of arterial hypertension were mainly based on monotherapy, that revealed insufficient effectiveness by numerous investigations. The approach to treatment of arterial hypertension has recently changed. At present new aproach is considered, the strategy of which is based on combined usage of small doses of hypertensive drugs with high effective result maintained and side-effects decrease. © 2006 Bull. Georg. Natl. Acad. Sci.

Key words: perindoprile, nebivalole, combined treatment, hypertension, left ventricle, atrium, systole, diastole.

pp. 393-395.




G. Gavardashvili, L. Tsulukidze


Analysis of the Onset of Avalanche Motion Using the Theory of Catastrophes

Presented by Member of the Academy Ts.Mirtskhoulava, November 15, 2005


Abstract. Using mathematical theory of catastrophes the variability of potential energy of avalanche, which is in boundary equilibrium has been determined. It has been estab­li­sh­ed that the exit from boundary equilibrium of the avalanche accumulated on mountain slope is described by the catastro­phe of the fold. This makes possible to determine the peculiarity of the onset of avalanche motion with account of algebraic coordinates. © 2006 Bull. Georg. Natl. Acad. Sci.

Key words: catastrophes, avalanche.

pp. 396-399.



M. Lataria, N. Naskidashvili, N. Dolaberidze


Adsorption of Hydrogen Sulfide on Natural and Modificated Clinoptilolite

Presented by Corr. Member of the Academy V. Tsitsishvili, December 20, 2005


ABSTRACT. Adsorption of hydrogen sulfide on natural and modificated  clinoptilolite samples of the “Tedzami” deposit has been studied. The obtained results show that during modification with the acid and cations K+, Co2+, Mn2+ adsorption activity is sharply increase. According to the adsorption properties modificated clinoptilolites are arranged in the following row: Tedzami, CoCtT<KCtT<HCtT<MnCtT. © 2006 Bull. Georg. Natl. Acad. Sci.

Key words: clinoptilolite, adsorption, hydrogen sulfide.

pp. 400-401.




N. Popiashvili, E. Popiashvili, M. Gogebashvili


The Influence of Gamma-Radiation on Intensity of Alkaloids Biosynthesis

Presented by Member of the Academy K. Nadareishvili, November 22, 2005


Abstract. As a result of experiments conducted on beforesowing gamma-irradiation of stramonium (Datura stramonium, L.) it was ascertained that it was possible to direct purposefully the secondary metabolism of plant by the use of ionizing radiation.

It is found that seeds’ exposure to gamma-radiation at a dose of 100Gy is effective practical means for the increase of activity of biosynthesis of pharmacologically important compounds. This dose also affects the process of the whole biomass accumulation. In case of seed’s exposure to gamma-radiation at a dose of 100Gy plant biomass decreases insignificantly (4-6%) in comparison with control while the index of activity of biosynthesis of tropane alkaloids increases by 41%.

It should also be observed that the means offered by us is effective mainly after blossoming of plant.  © 2006 Bull. Georg. Natl. Acad. Sci.

Key words: gamma-radiation, plant, alkaloids.

pp. 402-404.




L. Kokiauri


Monetary and Credit Policy of Banks in Conditions of Market Economy in Georgia

Presented by Corr.Member of the Academy L.Chikava, May 20, 2005


Abstract. Monetary policy is considered as the process of managing nation’s money supply to achieve specific goals, such as constraining inflation, achieving full employment or more well-being. Monetary policy can involve setting interest rates and margin requirements. Monetary and credit policy represents a unity of regulation of economic conditions and general economic goals such as currency stabilization, structural transformation of economy, with the aim of stabilization of economic growth of monetary and credit activity regulating government measures. National Bank’s directions, strategic goals and factors stimulating their realization have been considered. © 2006 Bull. Georg. Natl. Acad. Sci.

Key words: money, credit, bank, policy.

pp. 405-407.



N. Bagration-Davitashvili


On the Combination of Persons in Bi-personal Verbs

Presented by Corr. Member of the Academy M. Shanidze, February 22, 2006


ABSTRACT. The expression of combination of persons in the verb should be discussed at the morpho-phonological level. Due to the influence of phonological rules, certain person markers are lost. This results in the common plan of expression of different combinations on the grammatical level. These linguistic markers fulfill different functions in the system. © 2006 Bull. Georg. Natl. Acad. Sci.

Key words: S – subjective person, O – objective person.

pp. 408-410.



History of literature


Kh. Tsiklauri


The Innocence Conception of “Absurd Man”
(According to the Essay by Albert Camus “The Myth of Sisyphus”)

Presented by Member of the Academy E. Khintibidze, February 28, 2006


Abstract. Famous French writer Albert Camus tries to prove, that a person’s life lacks essence and is absurd. He aims to be separated from the existentialism and states that “the absurd philosophy” does not exist, there exists only “the method of absurd ideas”. A seed of moral still exists in his entire literature works and most emphatically this is revealed in his philosophical essay “The myth of Sisyphus”. He tries to prove that the controversial conclusions can be made from absurd fundamental fact, in other words, that life is worthy and suicide is wrong.

“Sisyphus gives us the lesson of the highest devotion that rejects God and carries big stone. This is the world the Lord does not exist any longer” – Camus states. © 2006 Bull. Georg. Natl. Acad. Sci.

Key words: Existentialism, Absurd,  Eternity, Rejection, Suicide, Absurd Human (Hero of Absurd).

pp. 411-413.




E. Vardoshvili


Parallelism in Akaki Tsereteli’s  Poem  “Saint Nino” and Different Editions of  “The Life of Saint Nino”

Presented by Corr. Member of the Academy E. Khintibidze, February 14, 2006


Abstract. There are on hand  five editions of “The Life of Saint Nino” at present. The literary work of XIX century which is showing a great likeness to the mentioned editions is Akaki Tseretelis poem “Saint Nino”. Comparing the poem of Akaki Tsereteli and the above mentioned editions we have shown that more similarity has been observed to Shatberdi-Chelishian version and especially to edition of Leonti Mroveli accounted in the “Kartli’s Age”. © 2006 Bull. Georg. Natl. Acad. Sci.

Key words: poem, wording, coincidence.

pp. 414-415.



T.  Shurghaia


On Dating Vat. iberico I

Presented by Corr. Member of the Academy E.Khintibidsze, February 17, 2006


ABSTRACT. The paper presents a critical analysis of the problem of dating Vat.iberico I as presented in the works of M.Tarkhnishvili, A. Pasoni del’Aqua, F. Koniberi, St Euthimius the Ghvtiskatsi (Takaishvili), G. Shurgaia. On the basis of paleographic characteristics, majuscular and minuscular scripts, of the composition, the textual and philological analyses, particularly on the basis of the analysis of the types and peculiarities of the ornaments, the study of decoration and composition, also on the grounds of the comparison to the Gospels A-484 (154) and S-962 (1054), the author argues that the manuscript under investigation must have been contemporary to the above-mentioned manuscripts, which means that it dates from the middle of the 11th century. © 2006 Bull. Georg. Natl. Acad. Sci.

Key words: Vat. iberico I, the Gospel, artistic ornaments, decor, entablature, paleography, date, scribe, patron, colophon, Bluetenblattstil.

pp. 416-418.



History of Literature


M. Chomakhidze


The Alienation of an Individual in Iris Murdoch’s “Under the Net”

Presented by Corr. Member of the Academy E. Khintibidze, December 13, 2005


Abstract. The article features the problem of the alienation of an individual in Iris Murdoch's earlier novel "Under the Net". Jake Donague, the protagonist and narrator of the novel is a  symbol of the twentieth century alienated person. The article deals with the artistic devices and symbols which are used for the achievement of author's creative purposes in the novel. On the basis of the scientific research of the novel we conclude that in the modern world of chaos and nihilism self-redemption is reached by abandonment of solipsism and by virtue towards other people. © 2006 Bull. Georg. Natl. Acad. Sci..

Key words: alienation, existentialist, chaotic, subjectivity, Love, Virtue, self-redemption.

pp. 419-420.



History of Sciences


Z. Urushadze


About a Real Conceptual Framework for Enzyme Catalysis

Presented by Member of the Academy G. Kvesitadze, December 6, 2005


ABSTRACT. The article deals with the present electronic (Internet) and printed publications of the scholars of the University of Leicester (UK) about the “New Theory on Enzyme Catalysis”. It proved to be that scholars of the Department of Biochemistry of the above-mentioned University “have discovered a new phenomenon occurring at the atomic level that dictates how enzymes work”, or to put it the other way round, they discovered “a process that relies on quantum-mechanical effects such as tunneling” and based on it to lay claim to creation of a “New Theory on Enzyme Catalysis”. Of course, it is excellent when experience is in close agreement with the theory, but here it is not a “New Theory”. The real authors of the Quantum-Mechanical Theory of Enzyme Catalysis were Corresponding Member of the Georgian Academy of Sciences (GAS) Professor Revaz (Rezo) R. Dogonadze (1931-1985) and his coworkers. It is necessary to remind of it. © 2006 Bull. Georg. Natl. Acad. Sci.

Key words: quantum mechanics, tunneling, enzyme catalysis, theory, electron transfer, proton transfer.

pp. 421-424.