volume 156 number 1 Jule-August
On the Integrability of Maximal Functions MB2(Q)(f)
by Academician L.Zhizhiashvili,
ABSTRACT. The problem is posed whether the conditions f őL(1+ln+L)n(R n) and are equivalent for functions főL(R n) (where n ≥ 2 and B2(q) denote the basis formed by rectangles having the edges parallel to the respective lines of the frame q). The obtained result represents a general solution of M. de Guzmanís problem that was previously studied by various authors.
Key words: MAXIMAL FUNCTIONS.
Nonabelian Tensor Products of Precrossed Modules
by Corr. Member of the Academy H.Inassaridze,
ABSTRACT. Some properties of the nonabelian tensor product of groups are established. The theorem of Brown and Loday about relationship of Whiteheadís gamma functor with the nonabelian tensor product and the exterior product of groups is generalized for precrossed modules. Long exact sequences of their left derived functors make this relationship precise. Similar results are obtained for Guinís tensor product of precrossed modules. Guinís homology is constructed with coefficients in precrossed modules using the nonabelian left derived function of Guinís tensor product.
A Theorem on Isoperimetric Problem of the Elasticity Theory
by Academician T.Burchuladze,
ABSTRACT. The following theorem is proved: among anisotropic elastic convex bodies of a given volume there exists the one for which the first eigen frequency of the first boundary value problem is minimal.
Key words: ISOPERIMETRIC, ELASTICITY, BOUNDARY BODY, CONVEX CONE, EIGEN FREQUENCES.
On the Representation of Numbers by Certain Quadratic Forms in Nine Variables
by Academician G.Chogoshvili,
ABSTRACT. The formulae for the number of representations of positive integers by the forms fk = 2 + (k = 1, 2, ..., 8) are obtained.
The Transformation of Fourier Series According to Generalized Spherical Functions
by Academician L. Zhizhiasvili,
ABSRTACT. The theorems similar to the theorem for single trigonometrical series are given in the paper.
Generalized Total Differentials of Many Variable Functions and Boundary Value Problems
Presented by Academician L.Zhizhiashvili, November 25, 1996.
ABSTRACT. In the present paper we continue investigation of boundary properties of derivatives of the Poisson integral for a half-space R+k+1 (k > 1). We introduce the notions of a generalized differential and of a generalized mixed partial derivative. Further we prove theorems on boundary properties of mixed partial derivatives of the Poisson integral, when density of the integral possesses a generalized total differential.
Axiomatic Characterizations of the Dimension of the Separable Metrizable Spaces
Presented by Academician G. Chogoshvili, April 29, 1997
Abstract. We consider modifications of the original axioms of Menger which together with decomposition and Gd Ė extension axioms characterise the covering dimension dim on the class of all separable metrizable spaces.
M.Kaviladze, M.Kviria, S.Tsereteli
The Variations of 14C Abundance in Tree Rings in View of Isotopic Fractionation Effect During 1590-1615, 1690-1710, 1780-1820 years
Presented by Corr.-Member of the Academy T.Sanadze , February 27, 1997
ABSTRACT. The measurements of the 13C/12C ratio have been performed on the samples of the dendrologically dated tree rings in the following periods of time: 1590-1615, 1690-1710, 1780-1820. Taking the obtained results into account the correction of the isotopic fractiousness has been made in the same interval of time on the basis of radiocarbon concentration measurements. The analysis proves that the common character of the 14C alterations during the time is not changed. Only small alterations of 14C variations amplitude have been noticed.
T. Abesadze, M. Elizbarashvili
Spin Echo Induced by Variable Intensity Pulses
Presented by Corr.-Member of the Academy T.Sanadze, March 13,1997
ABSTRACT. Possibility of multiple spin echo signals formation by application of two pulses with different intensity is investigated. It is shown that the number and position of spin echo signals depend only on the first pulse strength.
On a Possibility of Inverse Distribution Function Formation
Presented by Corr.-Member of the Academy T.Tsagareishvili, May 7, 1997
Abstract. The influence of inelastic impure scattering of photoelectrons on the formation of distribution function is studied. Electrons lifetime is determined by capture on neutral centres. It is established that distribution function in definite conditions is inverse. The inversion in distribution function is shown to be conditioned both by capture on neutral centres and inelastic impure scattering.
N.Kekelidze, R.Kochreidze, G.Mumladze, S.Odenov, J.Sanikidze, G.Tsintsadze, M.Chubabria
The Investigation of Magnetic Properties of the Bi-containing Superconducting Ceramics
Presented by Corr.-Member of the Academy T.Sanadze, April 29, 1997
ABSTRACT. In this article the magnetic properties of the Bi-containing HTSC-ceramics are investigated. The hysteresis curves taken near the transition temperature are qualitatively different from those, taken at lower temperatures and disintegrate into two separate loops, so that M(0)=0. This difference is explained by simultaneous effect of three factors: by transition of weak links into the normal state, by flux creep at the temperature higher than reversibility limit and by non-equilibrium state of flux lines below the first critical field.
Ultrasound Absorption in Amorphous Ferromagnetics
Presented by Academician J.Lominadze, April 27, 1997
ABSTRACT. In the present study, we investigated the resonance and relaxation mechanisms of ultrasound absorption in amorphous ferromagnetics. It has been established that for comparatively low temperatures resonance mechanism of absorption is more effective, whereas for high temperatures - relaxation mechanism of absorption.
G.Jandieri, Z.Surmanidze, Zh.Diasamidze, V.Jandieri
Dispersion Relations for Electromagnetic Radiation in Random Crystalline Materials
Presented by Academician G.Kharadze, April 29, 1997
ABSTRACT. The effective permittivity tensor for the crystalline medium with a randomly fluctuating parameter was obtained using effective medium approach.
A. Gerasimov, G. Chiradze, N. Kutivadze, A.Bibilashvili, Z. Bokhochadze
Anisotropy and Polarity of Hardness and Photomechanical Effect in Silicon Carbide
Presented by Corr.-Member of the Academy T.Sanadze, June 11, 1997
ABSTRACT. Microhardness, anisotropy and polarity of SiC of the hexagonal modification, alloyed with nitrogen, with the concentration ND _ NA= 3.1018cm-3, have been studied in the dark and illumination. Anisotropy of microhardness has been conditioned by various deformations of chemical bonds, while the change of the position of an indentor and the change of microhardness and its anisotropy due to irrespective of the spectral composition of the acting radiation illumination correlates with the concentration of non-balanced carriers of the excited charge.
N. Narimanidze, Sh. Samsonia, I. Chikvaidze
Synthesis of the Derivatives of 3-(p-Nitrophenyl)-5- Acetylindole-2-Carbonic Acid
Presented by Corr.-Member of the Academy L.Khananashvili, March 17, 1997
ABSTRACT. By the reaction of 2-ethoxycarbonyl-3-(p-nitrophenyl)-5-acetylindole with the thionyl chloride the chloroanhydride of the corresponding acid has been obtained. By the reaction of 3-(p-nitrophenyl)-5-acetylindole-2-carbonic acid chloroanhydride with the amines and hydrazines the amides, hydrazides have been obtained.
K.Ukleba, Academician G.Gvelesiani, J.Baratashvili, D.Tsagareishvili, J.Omiadze, A.Nadiradze
New Method of Calculation of Standard Heat Capacities of Double Oxides
Presented June 5, 1997
Abstract. The new method of calculation of standard heat capacities (Cp298) of double oxides has been worked out. The basis of it is the presence of the experimental data on Cp298 for different classes of these compounds. The values of Cp298 for more than 120 compounds of this class are calculated. The analysis of the obtained results showed that the average relative deflection of the calculated and experimental values of Cp298 for the investigated double oxides make ~ Ī3,0 %.
Voltametry of Tungstic Acid in Aqueousand Mixed Media
Presented by Corr.-Member of the Academy J.Japaridze, March 6, 1997
ABSTRACT. The voltammetric picture in the aqueous and mixed solutions of H2WO4 in 0,1M NaClO4 at the Sn, Cu, Ni, Pt and Cu-Hg disk electrodes has been studied. It has been shown that the waves, observed in these conditions, correspond to a hydrogen ions discharge process. The precise value of the first dissociation constant of H2WO4 has been determined; the value of the second dissociation constant has been estimated. The content of the various forms of W (6+) in the H2WO4 aqueous solutions (pH 2.2-4) has been calculated.
Mineralogical Criteria of Differentiation in Eocene Volcanogenic Rocks of the Adjara-Trialeti
Presented by Corr. Member of the Academy G.Zaridze, February 7,1997
ABSTRACT. Characteristic of coefficients of ironcontaining, oxidation, consolidation and others, has been presented on the basis of chemical analysis of the Eocene volcanogenic rocks in the region. Mineralogical criteria of differentiation of magma (liquation, hybridization, assimilation and crystallizing differentiation) have been considered according to alkalinity and acidity of the rocks. Typomorphic signs of distribution of dark minerals in sands, veins and thrusts have been described.
V.Gvakharia, G.Samarguliani , N.Machitadze
Infgluence of Antropogenic Factors on Distribution of Heavy Metals in Soils of Bolnisi Region
Presented by Academician T.Andronikashvili, March 7, 1997
ABSTRACT: Regularities of spreading and distribution of heavy metals in soil and water of Bolnisi district have been studied. Possible sources of pollution were detected. Sketch maps have been plotted based on the results of investigation.
Investigation of the Flat Oval-Vertical Oval Roll
Presented by Academician I.Jordania, March 24,1997
ABSTRACT. Expressions of the factor of true pass filling, shifted square of stripís cross-section and effectiveness of deformation for the case of flat oval strip rolling in a vertical oval pass are received. The possibility of use of this system with the oval-circle roll grooving system is demonstrated.
Composite Materials Hardness Obtained by High Temperature Selfspreading Synthesis (HTSS) Method.
Presented by Corr.-Member of the Academy G.Tsagareishvili
ABSTRACT. Hardness of TiB2-Ti, TiB2-ST. 45 alloys systems is investigated. Itís shown that choosing metal-binder of doubleboride titanium correctly by high temperature selfspreading synthesis method with compaction, it is possible to receive high hardness materials.
O.Labadze, M.Tsertsvadze, G.Kublashvili, P.Manjavidze
Mutual Inductance in the Three-Coordinate Semispherical Interinductive Primary Converter of Angular Transposition
Presented by Academician M. Salukvadze, January 27, 1997
ABSTRACT. The generalized formula for mutual inductance of semicircumferential inductive windings at their arbitrary interlocation is derived. It is the precondition to design three-coordinate semispherical interinductive primary converter of angular transposition which as noninertial and reliable plant may be succesfully used in automatic control systems, instrumentation and robotics facilities.
Technology of Materials
Academician R.Salukvadze, G.Karumidze, G.MurguliaPeculiarities of the Radiation Defect Producing in High-Doped Thermoelectric Alloy Si-Ge
Presented February 27, 1997
Abstract. This work represents the data of reactor radiation influence on the thermoelectric parameters of the strongdoped halfconductivity alloy Si0.7-Ge0.3 of n- and p-type, which are doped by phosphorus and boron.
It is shown that as the results of neutron irradiation (fluence 1019 cm-2, Trad=200įC), radiation defects of disordered region type are sprung up, that causes the decrease of concentration and mobility of current bearers. Restoration of these parameters occurs in the alloy of n-type at ~600įC, and p-type at ~1000įC, which is connected with the supplementary radiation defect appearing caused by the running nuclear reaction 10B(n,a)7Li. The work recommends the methods of rising p-type Si-Ge alloy radiation resistance by its izotope doping 11B.
Investigation of Autumn Aeropalynological Spectra of Tbilisi Atmosphere
Presented by Corr.-Member of the Academy G. Gurgenidze, April 1, 1997
ABSTRACT. In 1992_1994 aeropalynological spectra of Tbilisi atmosphere were investigated in some of its districts to determine the concentration of pollen grains of the plants causing pollinosis. Pollen grains were collected by means of special traps of glass plates. The traps were disposed in four districts: Vake, Nadzaladevi, Mtatsminda and Avlabari. The samples were analysed by acetolyzis method. The influence of meteorological factors on the formation of aeropallynological spectra was systematically studied. Autumn pollinosis in Tbilisi was shown due to the high concentration of pollen grains of local plant species having finished blossoming by that time.
Some Relationships among Species and Genera of Subtrib. Asterinae O.Hoffm
Presented by Corr.-Member of the Academy G. Nakhutsrishvili, March 7, 1997
ABSTRACT. Based on micro- and macromorphological and geographical data, the relations among species and genera of subtrib. Asterinae O.Hoffm. disposed in Georgia are considered in the paper.
L.Kobakhidze, Ts.Mikatadze-Pantsulaia, Z.Gamtsemlidze, M.Eristavi
Some Biological Peculiarities and Seedforming Processes of Helleborus caucasicus A.Br.
Presented by Corr.-Member of the Academy G.Nakhutsrishvili, December 30,1996
ABSTRACT. Biological peculiarities and seedforming processes in unstudied Caucasian endemic-Helleborus caucasicus A.Br. were investigated. Its generative organs development and pollination-fertilization processes are proceeding at a low temperature. But they are fulfilled mainly normally. Self-pollination for plant is easier to realize under unfavourable conditions. Cross-pollination occurs rarely.
Almost in all 10-11 ovules simultaneous development and differentiated embryo-sacs are observed. This indicates good potential seed production ability of this plant.
Genetics and selection
Chimera Formation in Japanese Persimmon by Grafting
Presented by Corr. Member of the Academy T.Chanishvili, June 11, 1997
ABSTRACT. Intermediate shoots originated by grafting are mainly observed in the zone of root collar and in the middle zone. In the apical zone they are absent.
Contacting cells of rootstock and graft calluses are integrated forming an initial chimeric tetrad of growth cone. A conception considering Japanese persimmon variety bein goriginated on the ground of chimmerization seems to be assumable.
HUMAN AND ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY
K.Gegeshidze, M.Tsagareli, Z.Zurabashvili
The Emotional Influence on Human Visual Recognition: Psychophysiological Aspects
Presented by Corr. Member of the Academy V.Mosidze, April 14, 1997
ABSTRACT. To investigate the number of correct responses (NCR), the reaction time (RT) and the event-related potentials (ERPs), the effects of positive and negative verbal reinforcement on the visuo-spatial recognition of geometric figures in condition of backward masking were studied in healthy subjects and patients with chronic alcoholism. It has been found that in performance of mentally constructing geometric figures unlike the control group in alcoholics the NCR was greater and the RT was lesser in tests after positive reinforcement than after negative reinforcement. Negative verbal reinforcement in healthy subjects produced reductions in the latency and increases in the amplitude of N200-P300 potentials, particularly in the right parietal lobe and the vertex. These changes were not observed in patients. The patientsí lesser ability to perform visuo-spatial tasks could be explained by the general reduction in ERPs and the disappearance of interhemisphere functional asymmetry.
HUMAN AND ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY
Academician T.Oniani, N.Darchia, I.Gvilia, M.Eliava
The Peculiarities of the Sleep-Wakefulness Cycle in Guinea Pigs
Presented November 12, 1996
ABSTRACT. In the course of prolonged systematic study of the structure of the sleep-wakefulness /S-W/ cycle in the guinea pig with the lapse of time a considerable increase in the circadian sleep amount and stabilization of S-W cyclic organization are observed. This is likely to be the result of the animalís adaptation to the experimental conditions.
G.Mrevlishvili, M.Khvedelidze, T.Mdzinarashvili
The Physical Nature of Phase Transition in the Aqueous Solutions of "Molten Globule"
Presented by Academician M.Zaalishvili, March 4, 1997
ABSTRACT. We suggest that thermal unfolding of the molten globule state of horse cytochrome C is a cooperative process with a small, but distinct and positive DCp=0.2Ī0.02J/gK. Results suggest that transition "molten globule-unfolded state" for cytochrome is like phase transition of the first order. However, by certain attribute this transition is close by the second-order phase transition, for example, the heat of transition is small DH=173 KJM-1.
Effect of Lucreazine as Plant Growth Regulator on the Nitrate Assimilation in the Bean Plant Culture at the Early Stages of Vegetation
Presented by Academician G.Kvesitadze, May 2, 1997
ABSTRACT. The effect of lucreazine on the nitrate assimilation in the bean plant has been studied. Lucreazine stimulates the nitrate assimilation and protein levels in the bean primary leaves by using nitrate as single nitrogen source at the early stages of vegetation.
Influence of Planting Density of Large-Fruited Cranberry (Oxycoccus macrocarpus Pers.) on Grafts Rootage and Biometric Indices
Presented by Academician G.Gigauri, June 10, 1997
ABSTRACT. Investigations were held to ascertain the density of planting grafts, rhizogenous and the ability of overground mass regeneration.
To the Phylogeny of the EISENIA Genus (OLIGOCHAETA: LUMBRICIDAE) and Independence of two Species of Caucasian Earthworms
Presented by Corr. Member of the Academy I.Eliava, December 30, 1996
ABSTRACT: The earthworms E.breviclitelata and E.transcaucasica have been studied by means of scanning electron microscope. Subfamily Eiseninae, including genera Eisenia, Omodeioa, Dentrodrilus represent independent line in the phylogeny of the earthworms. E.breviclitelata Kvavadze, 1985 and E.transcaucasica Perel, 1967 are arisen as independent species.
M.Gabrichidze, P.Chelidze, Sh.Jinjolia, G.Tumanishvili
Construction of the Nucleolar Dynamic 3D Model Using Graphic and Animation Computer Programs. I. Spatial Structure of Fibrillar Centres, Vacuolar Network and Nucleolus Associated Chromatin in Guinea Pig Somatic Tissues
Presented by Academician G.Tumanishvili, March 18, 1997
ABSTRACT. The reconstruction of spatial architecture of ring-shaped and intermediate nucleoli in guinea liver and kidney blood capillaries endothelium by ultrastructural computer tomography have been performed in this study. Due to the well developed intranucleolar chromatin and a sufficiently high vacuolization extent nucleoli of hepatic and kidney endotheliocytes are a suitable model to precisely described the spatial distribution of nucleolus associated chromatin and to perform a three-dimensional analysis of the connection between fibrillar centres, the vacuolar component and intranucleolar chromatin. Owing to a strongly developed vacuolar system with well identifiable clumps of condensed chromatin the structural unity of peri- and intranucleolar chromatin fibrillar centres and vacuolar network can be taken for granted. The functional sense of the connection between these structures is discussed.
F.Todua, D.Gotsadze, M.Kekelidze, A.Nadareishvili, N.Khutulashvili, K.Torondjadze
New Aspects in Diagnostic Imaging of Retroperitoneal Metastases of Testicular Tumours
Presented by Corr.-Member of the Academy V.Bakhutashvili, May 6, 1997
ABSTRACT. The relative effectiveness of different diagnostic methods (intravenous urography, ultrasonography and computed tomography) in detecting retroperitoneal lymph node metastases of testicular tumours was studied in 104 patients. Characteristic features of retroperitoneal metastases were estimated. The specificity, sensitivity and accuracy of each method were determined. Diagnostic algorithm of patients with testicular tumours was worked out.
M. Phosuri, L. Gogiashvili
Ultrastructure of the Lungís Parenchima under Diffuse Peritonitis in Experiment
Presented by Academician N. Javakhishvili, January 31, 1997
ABSTRACT. The injection 10% fecal suspension in the ratís abdominal cavity gave rising to changes characteristic for early stages of "shock lungs". Diminishing of respiratory and perfusive surfaces in blood-gas barrier, milliary septiconecrotic pneumonia, early involved endothelial cells of the microcirculation in the pathologic process were stated previously to changes in the organ. The reactions from macrophages, stroma and endothelial cells must be regarded as a main ring in the chain of lungís damage.
K.Vacharadze, Z.Kalandadze, L.Vashakidze
Laser Effect as Physical Modulator in Various Forms of Tuberculosis
Presented by Academician T.Chanishvili, May 29, 1997
ABSTRACT. The paper reports that laserotherapy with complex traditional methods of treatment can be successfully applied in clinical practice.
Pharmacokinetic Characteristics of Basic Antiepileptic Means
Presented by Corr. Member of the Academy V.Mosidze, June 3, 1997
ABSTRACT. Pharmacokinetic investigation of antiepileptic medicine: phenobarbital, carbamazepine and diazepam was carried out on animals and in clinics. They were also used for treatment of childrenís epilepsy by means of highly effective liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Received data helped to work out individual methodics of treatment for each patient.
Methods of Investigation and Characterization of Grown-up Patients in the case of Exogenous Manifestation of Schizoaffective Psychosis
Presented by Academician V.Okujava, July 1, 1997
ABSTRACT. Clinico-pathogenic investigations of endogenous psychosis taking into consideration age period peculiarities of the entire life cycle of the patients are presented in the paper. The following methods of investigations were used: 1)retrospective analysis of catamnesis data of the entire life cycle of the examined patients; 2)study of peculiarities of syndromogenesis in the course of each type of schizoaffective psychosis.
T.Churadze, Zig. Zurabashvili, M. Vachnadze
Structural and Cytochemical Research of Blood Monocytes in Children with Atopic Asthma
Presented by Academician N.Javakhishvili, August 6, 1996
ABSTRACT. We investigated morphology and cytochemistry of monocytes in case of bronchial asthma and estimated the efficacy of treathment on the bases of structural-cytochemical data. In case of bronchial asthma indices of monocytes change and according to this data we can judge about the severness of disease, the efficacy of the treatment and the ability to prognose the disease.
Fossil Snake Localities of the Caucasus
Presented by Academician L. Gabunia, February 17, 1997
ABSTRACT. The present paper sums up an up-to-date information about the fossil snake localities of the Caucasus with corresponding fossil snake taxa. Nowadays only eleven sites are known. Also a map of localities is given showing their stratigraphical sequence. Such kind of work is done for the first time.
The Analysis of Russellian Interpretation of Kant
Presented by Academician G.Tevzadze, January 20, 1997
Abstract. Deep analysis of Russellís teaching was made and it became clear that his answer to the most fundamental problems was nothing, but the interpretation of Kantís view point on these problems. He rejected Kant but his gnosiology, ethic and philosophy of religion was influenced by Kantís views.
Peculiarities of Georgian and Russian Interpretation of Greek Word alyJeia (Truth)
Presented by Corr.-Member of the Academy R.Gordeziani, June 25, 1997
ABSTRACT. Translation of Greek Bible Books brought into Russian and Georgian languages many new words. However changes in the Georgian and Russian languages were determined by pre-Christian world outlook of Georgian and Russian people.
The Comparative Analysis of the Sound System of the Arabic Dialects of Egypt, Chad and Sudan
Presented by Corr.-Member of the Academy A.Gvakharia, March 6,1997
ABSTRACT. In the present article we investigate the sound system of Egyptian, Chadian and Sudanese Arabic dialects. It is mentioned that the dialect of Arabic Egypt and Sudan are in close relationship with each other, but Chadian Arabic is definitely remote from them.
System of the Common-Kartvelian Lyric (Lapidary) Verse
Presented by Corr. Member of the Academy A.Gvakharia, August 4, 1997
ABSTRACT. The structural models of the Common-Kartvelian lyric (lapidary) verse are reconstructed in the paper, based on a comparative method. In turn the reconstructed models, according to the authorís theory, create a single versification system.
The Ritual of Blood Sacrifice and the Late Antique World
Presented by Corr. Member of the Academy R.Gordesiani, July 2, 1997
ABSTRACT. Christian ideology put forth the argument against blood sacrifice; the Crusification of Christ is the last and greatest sacrifice. There is no longer need for daily pagan sacrifices. However, when faced with the tradition of blood sacrifice Christianity was somewhat powerless. This is shown by the continuing existence of this tradition in a number of Christian countries up today. Probably we must search the reason for this not only in strong roots left by pagan religion but also in human psyche.
The Names and Titulation of the Kvirikian Kings of Tashir-Dzoraget Kingdom
Presented by Academician M.Lortkipanidze, February 13,1997
ABSTRACT. The Kvirikians family represented the collateral branch of Armenian Bagratuni. The name of the family comes from the Anis King Ashot IIIís younger son Gurgenís name, who was also called Kvirike. In Georgian and Armenian sources the names and titles of the family show their real political situation. The Georgian source calls them "King of Somekh", which means not the ownership of some Armenian territory, but national-religious state. The Armenian source mentions them by the name of "King of Albans", it means that Kvirikians owned the part of Albania as well.
The Cognitive System of Lexicology
Presented by Corr. Member of the Academy M.Andronikashvili, January 3, 1997
ABSTRACT. In modern theoretical linguistics the question of cognitive studying of the main notions is urgent. Attempts at creating the main notions of "lexicology" are presented in the paper.
A system of the basic concepts on the theme "lexicology" contains the following elements: lexicology as a branch of linguistics studying the systems of meaning of language; lexical fund as an object of study of lexicology; lexeme as the basic unit of study of lexicology; vocable as an external form of a lexeme; lexemetheme ("lexemethema") as the internal form of a lexeme (plane of contents).